This time we are going to talk about the social and political structure of Raqqa city. The city consists mostly of a tribal community, such as Albo Shaaban of old Arab tribal Qahtan along with some coming from Aleppo and Homs in the seventies of the last century.
This tribal society is made up of tribes elders but Baath regime consider the tribal society is something reactionary so the government worked to undermine the role of the elders and instead gave them some economic privileges without any political or social role. The most privilege they can get is a chair in the parliament (even before the elections). As a result of this policy, the corruption occurred clearly in the society just like any other city in Syria. Moreover, this policy gave this area a raciest stigma and called the people of these areas as (Shawaya) and used this term even in media and the Syrian TV series showed Raqqa as if it is a group of tents and the people of Raqqa are ignorant horny people.
In the beginning of the Syrian revolution, everyone remembers when the security officer had threatened the protesters of Shawaya, referring to the soldiers from Raqqa and eastern Syria.
Raqqa has started its revolutionary movement in response to the Syrian cities in March 2011. Because the city is small, it was easy for the regime security forces to control the city.
As a result of the social situation, the society was divided into rebels, especially among the younger generation, silent and regime supporters of Shabiha.
Tribal leaders had stood beside the regime or stayed silent, the regime took advantage of that and started several tribal conferences in order to show the world that all tribes stand beside Assad regime and we do not forget how Bashar Al Assad used that and came to Raqqa in 2011 to pray in one of its mosques in Adha Eid.
After the liberation of the city in March 2013, the city was under the control of each of the following: FSA, Al Nusra Front and Ahrar Al Cham. People of Raqqa established a local council with a main role of providing public services. Moreover, several youth organizations were established then and it is worth noted that the Syrian political opposition represented by the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces has made a big mistake when they did not benefit from the largest and first liberated city in Syria.
After ISIS controlled over Raqqa, the terrorist group could not manage the city so the members of the local council completed their work ,despite the fact that their donations are coming from the (Infidels), until the terrorist group controlled over Mosul in August 2014.